Answers are in questions. Special thanks here. Sometimes, it's the questions which advances the science. Well, in fact, that's what science is all about, asking questions.
In response to this question:
~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~. Relativity made Simple
The orbital model of the atom is mainly from chemistry. You have electron orbitals .. the outer electron shell is what exchanges in reactions. The orbital model of the atom is something people can work with.
If something is right or wrong is doesn't matter as much as how can work with it and understand what we're working with. Yes, electrons have mass.
Change in mass is due to speed and inertia closer to the speed of light something moves. But electricity travels naturally at the speed of light. It does have a speed limit when magnetic resistance is considered tho. Free flow of electricity at the speed of light is more superconductive...
There are no absolutes. There is what we measure and what works. Most folks trying to re-write physics also don't understand simple gravity or Einstein's equivalency. So ...
You could say electricity has mass. Mass is therefore Energy.
Electromagnetic Light, Time in Electromagnetic Space
To answer your question about time, you may have to read those new books I included on the recommended reading list (its up at the top of the list). You're asking the "how does it work" question, whereas my website is geared more to the "we know that it works and what works with it" perspective.
The Paul Davies book "The edge of infinity" will help quite a bit.
My home page and the warp drive news and warp drive blog pages gets heavy into all of that. People liked the articles, some of them, so I guess people liked that it makes you think, particularly about the paradox.
It is hard to fathom actually. I used to know the calculus approach to answering the question of why is the equation for the volume of a sphere so peculiar. ... Relativity is a calculus thing but also geometry. Calculus deals with spherical geometry. But standard geometry in say Euclidean, provides a good explanation. I never was one to retain math, but I taught myself calculus out of the book .. took classes too but .. the logic itself can be understood if the operations are known. There's a lot to memorize tho.
The natural way the universe works tho is easier to understand and to be known innately. You can derive the math at any time. But knowing gravity and electromagnetism is simple and MUST be simple for it to be real, according to Einstein. It has to make common sense! But sometimes it is exactly backwards to what common sense tells us. That's because two work with one in this universe.
When you see two blackholes spin down for a faster frequency of time, you have to assume one black hole by itself creates a slower time frequency surrounding it.
That's the simple relation to gravity, mass, and frequency (time), for everything in the universe. Positive and negative also apply, as does electromagnetism. All of it is Light.
Now where inertia comes in, well its all in motion. What can be still though will still have inertia. Thats what Newton's third law really means. That's what it is really saying.
Time is frequency, of motion. Simply. The fact time speeds up farther from gravity and slows down closer to gravity is all positive electromagnetism. Negative electromagnetism occurs with two (at least), working as one.
Everything wants to revert back to a light state. All particles retain that acknowledgement essentially. But density (matter, and mass) behaves in opposite to a pure light state, behaving exactly backwards to light.
Time is the density of separation of matter into opposite states. Frequency of that separation from a zero point (be it a wave on a graph or a curve approaching infinity) into one polarity AND another is the space between the moments of separation, as matter separates further from light into higher densities. We consider higher density as low vibrational states, of more dense matter. That is how Relativity works, from that perspective.
If something happens 10 billion miles away, then how fast does light travel? Light will travel at the same speed everywhere if you measure it from where you are. So we exist always within our own spacetime continuum. But, the speed of light does change, which has been measured in labs and across distance.
That means that light measures spacetime. And according to science and Einstein, yes it does. Light measures the frequency of spacetime. How the hell else do we know when time speeds up or slows down unless we can see it, and detect electromagnetic waves from distant places in space reaching this point, or from point A to point B?
Time speeds up away from gravity, out in deep space because deep space is less dense. So, light will travel faster in deep space. Light travels about 360 million miles per hour from our current gravitytime position, roughly. It'll travel that fast near and within our local time frequency of density space.
It'll go faster in deep space than what we think. But we can calculate how fast if we sit and think about it. All in positive space. We you go into negative space, you're simply dealing with warp drive theory.
So light travels. Rather space travels. Light is everywhere at once.
Speed is another factor. That's where special relativity kicks in. That's what special relativity is all about. Speed of matter.
Matter that moves fast away from mass, or in parallel with mass, has a special relation with time because of frequency of motion and thus inertia. Inertia is electromagnetic in nature. Frequency deals mainly with time.
Does that explain how time works better? If you want to know why it works, or how it works, it has been mapped out. Orbiting massive bodies relative to each other tend to speed up time. Even though a binary star system has more mass, the massive stars revolving around each other speed up time instead of slowing it down due to a massive presence itself.
If the two as one were to become one, such as if the stars went black hole simultaneously, then in that uniform paradoxical geometry of inertial rotation, the collision of the binary stars in paradoxical motion can unify eventually as a black hole. But in the meantime, the frequency of time will speed up, approaching light which is infinite time. So mass has that limit that it cannot be light but, well .. How do I explain that? If the two become a one (a black hole), then it will be positive in gravity energy (a strong gravity force) and will slow down time because it stretches the time frequency so much as gravity pulls on the fabric of space, that time slows down a whole heck of a lot, at a black hole. Eventually at the event horizon of the singularity hole, time will stop mostly.